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Section 8: References and Links


In addition to the references below, please see the 1,078 references listed in the original Open Letter.

  1. Van Egeren D, Novokhodko A, Stoddard M, et al. Risk of rapid evolutionary escape from biomedical interventions targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0250780. Published 2021 Apr 28. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0250780 file:///C:/Users/rmren/Downloads/journal.pone.0250780.pdf
  2. Graves CJ, Ros VID, Stevenson B, Sniegowski PD, Brisson D. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9: e1003766. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003766 PMID: 24244173 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828179/pdf/ppat.1003766.pdf
  3. Thomson EC, Rosen LE, Shepherd JG, Spreafico R, Filipe A da S, Wojcechowskyj JA, et al. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 spike N439K variants maintain fitness while evading antibody-mediated immunity. Cell. 2021; 184: 1171–1187.e20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.037 PMID: 33621484 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843029/?report=printable
  4. Korber B, Fischer WM, Gnanakaran S, Yoon H, Theiler J, Abfalterer W, et al. Tracking Changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike: Evidence that D614G Increases Infectivity of the COVID-19 Virus. Cell. 2020; 182: 812–827.e19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.043 PMID: 32697968 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332439/?report=printable
  5. Plante JA, Liu Y, Liu J, Xia H, Johnson BA, Lokugamage KG, et al. Spike mutation D614G alters SARSCoV-2 fitness. Nature. 2020; 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2895-3 PMID: 33106671 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480025/pdf/nihpp-2020.09.01.278689.pdf
  6. Weisblum Y, et al. Escape from neutralizing antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants. Elife. 2020 Oct 28;9:e61312. doi: 10.7554/eLife.61312.PMID: 33112236 
  7. Sui J, et al. Effects of human anti-spike protein receptor binding domain antibodies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralization escape and fitness. J Virol. 2014 Dec;88(23):13769-80. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02232-14. Epub 2014 Sep 17.PMID: 25231316
  8. Hodcroft EB, Zuber M, Nadeau S, Comas I, Candelas FG, Consortium S-S, et al. Emergence and spread of a SARS-CoV-2 variant through Europe in the summer of 2020. medRxiv. 2020; 2020.10.25.20219063. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.25.20219063 PMID: 33269368 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709189/pdf/nihpp-2020.10.25.20219063.pdf
  9. Kemp SA, Harvey WT, Datir RP, Collier DA, Ferreira I, Carabelli AM, et al. Recurrent emergence and transmission of a SARS-CoV-2 Spike deletion ΔH69/V70. bioRxiv. 2020; 2020.12.14.422555. https:// doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.14.422555
  10. Davies NG, Abbott S, Barnard RC, Jarvis CI, Kucharski AJ, Munday JD, et al. Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England. Science. 2021 [cited 6 Apr 2021]. https://doi. org/10.1126/science.abg3055 PMID: 33658326 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128288/pdf/372_abg3055.pdf
  11. Lee WS, Wheatley AK, Kent SJ, DeKosky BJ. Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies. Nature Microbiology. 2020; 5: 1185–1191. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020- 00789-5 PMID: 32908214 4 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32908214/
  12. Stoddard M, Sarkar S, Nolan RP, White DE, White L, Hochberg NS, et al. Beyond the new normal: assessing the feasibility of vaccine-based elimination of SARS-CoV-2. medRxiv. 2021; 2021.01.27.20240309. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.20240309
  13. Liu et al. An infectivity-enhancing site on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein targeted by antibodies. Cell 184, 3452–3466; 2021. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867421006620)
  14. Peacock TP, et al. The SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron, shows rapid replication in human primary nasal epithelial cultures and efficiently uses the endosomal route of entry. January 3, 2022. (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.31.474653v1)
  15. Yahi N, Chahinian H, Fantini J. Infection-enhancing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies recognize both the original Wuhan/D614G strain and Delta variants. A potential risk for mass vaccination? J Infect. 2021 Nov;83(5):607-635. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.08.010. Epub 2021 Aug 9. PMID: 34384810; PMCID: PMC8351274. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34384810/)
  16. Gadanec LK, McSweeney KR, Qaradakhi T, Ali B, Zulli A, Apostolopoulos V. Can SARS-CoV-2 Virus Use Multiple Receptors to Enter Host Cells?. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(3):992. Published 2021 Jan 20. doi:10.3390/ijms22030992 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863934/#B233-ijms-22-00992)
  17. Lempp, F.A., et al. Lectins enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection and influence neutralizing antibodies. Nature 598342–347 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03925-1
  18. Reyneveld GI, Savelkoul HFJ and Parmentier HK (2020) Current Understanding of Natural Antibodies and Exploring the Possibilities of Modulation Using Veterinary Models. A Review. Front. Immunol. 11:2139. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.02139 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511776/pdf/fimmu-11-02139.pdf
  19. Holodick NE, Rodríguez-Zhurbenko N, Hernández AM. Defining natural antibodies. Front Immunol. (2017) 8:872. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00872 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526850/pdf/fimmu-08-00872.pdf
  20. Panda S, Ding JL. Natural antibodies bridge innate and adaptive immunity. J Immunol. (2015) 194:13–20. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1400844 https://www.jimmunol.org/content/194/1/13.long
  21. Coutinho A, Kazatchkine MD, Avrameas S. Natural autoantibodies. Curr Opin Immunol. (1995) 7:812–8. doi: 10.1016/0952-7915(95)80053-0 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8679125/
  22. Ochsenbein AF, Zinkernagel RM. Natural antibodies and complement link innate and acquired immunity. Immunol Today. (2000) 21:624–30. doi: 10.1016/s0167-5699(00)01754-0 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11114423/
  23. Binder C. Naturally occurring IgM antibodies to oxidation-specific epitopes. Adv Exp Med Biol. (2012) 750:2–13. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3461-0_1 https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-3461-0_1
  24. Loske, J., Röhmel, J., Lukassen, S. et al. Pre-activated antiviral innate immunity in the upper airways controls early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Nat Biotechnol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-01037-9
  25. Perez-Zsolt D, et al. SARS-CoV-2 interaction with Siglec-1 mediates trans-infection by dendritic cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 18:2676–2678; 2021. (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00794- 6.pdf
  26. Meng, B., Abdullahi, A., Ferreira, I.A.T.M. et al. Altered TMPRSS2 usage by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron impacts infectivity and fusogenicity. Nature 603706–714 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.17.473248v2).


For more information regarding concerns about the COVID vaccination campaign, particularly the campaign to vaccinate children, the reader is referred to the following links, which provide extensive references:

An Open Letter to Parents and Pediatricians Regarding COVID Vaccination (Dr. Rennebohm). This is the original Open Letter. It provides 1078 references:


Open Letter—Part II: A Review and Update (Dr. Rennebohm and Dr. Vanden Bossche):



Video-interview regarding the Open Letter to Parents and Pediatricians (Dr. Rennebohm and Dr. Philip McMillan):


Video of an informal conversation between Dr. Geert Vanden Bossche, Dr. Philip McMillan, and Dr. Rob Rennebohm.


The Immunologic Rationale Against C-19 Vaccination of Children (Dr. Vanden Bossche):


Predictions on the Evolution of the COVID 19 Pandemic (Dr. Vanden Bossche):


An Explanation of why the COVID mass vaccination campaign has prolonged the COVID pandemic, made it more dangerous, and is now paving the way for appearance of new pandemics—involving monkeypox, avian flu, RSV, and polio. (Dr. Vanden Bossche):


Immuno-epidemiologic ramifications of the C-19 mass vaccination experiment: Individual and global health consequences. (Dr. Vanden Bossche):


A Call for an Independent International COVID Commission (Dr. Rennebohm):


Dr. Geert Vanden Bossche’s Website: www.voiceforscienceandsolidarity.org

Dr. Rennebohm’s Website: www.notesfromthesocialclinic.org

Robert Rennebohm, MD

July 6, 2022